An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links
to Mythologies, Fairy Tales & Folklore,
Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.

Common Themes, East & West:

Air, Wind, and Sky Goddesses & Gods


Kukulkan, the Feathered Serpent
National Museum of Anthropology and History, Mexico City
Photo © Edgar Martín del Campo
(See directly below)
From Edgar Martín del Campo comes this marvelous page on the "Feathered Serpent" of Mesoamerica, a being connected with wind, storms, and sky:
Before the introduction of the Feathered Serpent, the Maya had already established a religious belief that certain gods and royal ancestors were carried down from the heavens to the earth within the vessel of a great serpent. Toltec influence into the Yucatán Peninsula had imported the image of the Feathered Serpent, which in turn was translated into the Maya languages. The most popular name is the Yucatec Maya version - Kukulkan....
The page offers many photo-thumbnails which are clickable for fine enlargements (see directly above).

[FYI: for those interested in a myth of ancestors being carried to earth within "the vessel of a great serpent," a book I recommend is by Swiss anthropologist, Jeremy Narby: The Cosmic Serpent: DNA and the Origins of Knowledge (Tarcher/Putnam, 1988).  It's mind-blowing.]

Huaxtec Relief
Photo © Edgar Martín del Campo:
" Because this god bears symbols of the wind and of life,
he is equated with the Feathered Serpent,
probably the most universal and humanly god across Mesoamerica...."
[See directly below]

Again from Edgar Martín del Campo comes this equally excellent, illustrated page on various wind and storm deities of Mesoamerica.  Once again, thumbnails are clickable for fine enlargements (see directly above).
Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages.


Maori Greenstone Tiki
[Source Unknown]

[From 1998]: Purapurawhetu, or "How the Stars Were Made":  this Maori tale of the forgotten brother, Uru, is another in Hana Weka's beautifully told stories of the Earth-Cycle (see Earth Goddesses & Gods).  When his younger brothers pulled their mother from their father, Uru stayed with his sky-father, but was so silent that even his father forgot about him.  Uru wept at what had been done to his parents and hid his tears in secret baskets.  This myth is stunning in its perspective on relational fields between father and son, and other male siblings.

Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages.


By MiriamOlodoodi
OneWorldMagazine, image #7 [URL tba]

From Sky & Telescope comes a 3-part 1997 article by Roslynn Haynes, "Dreaming the Sky," about Aboriginal knowledge and interpretations of the sky world:
The Aborigines' view of the cosmos is based in their concept of the Dreaming -- a distant past when the Spirit Ancestors created the world....


Eos, Dawn Goddess
© Eric Marette at Mytholoria
[Used with permission -- go to his site for more mythic art]
This is a good page on the Greek goddess of the dawn skies, Eos:
Eos, (Aurora)...was a personification of the dawn of the morning. A fresh wind was felt at her approach, the morning star Eosphorus (Greek), Lucifer [i.e., "Light-Bearer"] (Roman), still lingered in the sky, and beacuse the ruddy beams appeared like outspread fingers, she was called "rosy-fingered Morn." The star and the winds of the morning, Zephyr, Boreas, Notos, and Euros, were her offspring....
This is a too-brief site on Iris, the bright, winged rainbow goddess of the Greeks, the sky-goddess who connected heavenly Olympus wth earth, especially when the gods wished to take an oath.  Where we in the West use the Bible when we take a legally binding oath, the Olympian gods could only take one on the sacred waters of the River of Death, Styx.  Since the patriarchal Olympians feared Death-goddess Styx and her dark waters, they were afraid to descend to earth to take their oath.

So Iris was summoned to carry a vessel, or "grail," of river-water from earth, up through the skies, to Olympus where the gods breathed their words over the waters, out into the winds.  If they were foresworn, the crime was considered so serious that they were denied ambrosia for nine years -- this meant that they were mortal and aged during those nine years.

Thus, Iris is connected with the realms of air and sky on a number of levels: she flings bright colors in an arc through the skies, thereby creating a bridge in the skies between heaven and earth, and she witnesses the speech, or "breath," of the deities, testing it for truthfulness.

You won't find any of this on the above site -- I tell you this only because I want to share more with you about Iris.  I find her especially interesting because of her connection with the Goddess Styx.  The two, on the surface, are so utterly different, one light, the other dark, one in the skies, the other thundering through the gorges of earth, one loved, the other feared, one a representation of life, the other of death --- yet the two are linked, inextricably interconnected, as is all life and death, witnesses to the sacredness of that truth.  We could learn much from both Iris and Styx.  [Also see my Floods & Rainbows page.]
This is a very brief page on Nike, the winged goddess of victory:
...Sometimes she carries a staff (caduceus) like that of Hermes, as a sign of her power, and floating in air coming down to earth to point the way to a victory....
Nike is one of 4 daughters of Death-river Styx (see above).  Where her mother's waters belong to earth, Nike's wings take her into other realms, giving her the freedom of both sky and earth.

Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages:
e.g., Star Lore & Greece.


© By Latvian artist, Roberts Diners (1977 - )

From Kristaps comes a fine page on ancient Latvian deities -- scroll down for a listing of "Deities of the Cosmos" and "Deities of the Weather" -- then click on the specific categories that interest you.  Note: the linked pages include handsome symbols found in textiles.  Unfortunately, this site is rigged to prevent cutting and pasting excerpts, so you'll have to take my word that a visit is worthwhile.
This is another page on "Latvian Sky Deities" from A. Steinbergs.  He includes solar, lunar, thunder and morning star deities (note: other solar deities will be found on my Fire & Solar Goddesses & Gods page and lunar deities will be found on my Water & Lunar Goddesses & Gods page).  Like Kristaps, he includes symbols for each deity found in textiles.

Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages


"The Ancient of Days"
Frontispiece to Europe, a Prophecy, 1794
William Blake (1757-1827)

From The Book of Deities at Spirit-Online come several pages containing 187 alphabetized listings for air-deities.  Some data is minimal but other entries offer some surprisingly detailed information.  Unfortunately, no hypertext is available for those who wish to explore more deeply.  Still, there's much here that's useful and you can always use search engines or libraries to investigate further.

Warning: the pages are based on the site's own quixotic search engine, which means that it searched for air regardless of context; thus, you'll find non-air deities listed here -- e.g., foam-born Aphrodite who had an affAIR with Ares, and someone else who was a fAIRy queen.  So keep your wits about you here.
This illustrated site on multi-cultural deities from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) offers data on separate pages geared for Beginners, Intermediate, and Advanced.  Ignore the fact that the "Advanced" category is what most of us would consider pretty basic (I'd use the URL for "Advanced" instead of the above "Intermediate" URL, except that the webmaster has created an unnecessarily cumbersome URL that's too long to fit on a line, even when drastically reduced in size).  The site shows growing-pains: there are pages that partially duplicate one another; some offer more choices; others are better organized.  I'm therefore offering alternates below.

Scroll down to the seven cross-cultural deities listed under "Rain, Wind, Storm, Thunder and Lightning" -- these are: Shango [Yoruba]; Susanowo [Japanese]; Thor [Norse]; Tlaloc [Aztec]; Tonenili [Navajo]; Xib Chac [Mayan]; and Njord [Norse].  Aspects of the Earth is another link from this site which duplicates some of the above but also offers additional choices in various categories.

Under "Sky" there are six more cross-cultural deities: Ahsonnutli [Navajo]; An [Sumerian]; Nut [Egyptian]; Odin [Norse]; Olorun [Yoruba]; and Tyr [Norse].  Sky, Constellations, and Stars is another link from this site which duplicates some of the above but offers quite a few additional choices along with new categories.
From a British pagan site comes an alphabetical listing of cross-cultural air-deities.  Data is really minimal but if a name interests you, try doing a web search for further information.

Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages.

Mything Links' General Reference Pages:
MythingLinks Search Engine
Cross-cultural, Multi-regional, Interdisciplinary Collections
General Reference Page  (online libraries, reference help, literary texts, world languages, word-lover sites, help on writing research papers, copyright information, film plots, themes, and/or films representing various historical periods)
Special Interest Sites for Pacifica Faculty, Students & Colleagues (includes Jung, Campbell, Freud, Eliade, Otto, Hillman, other depth psychologists, mysticism, anthropology, religious studies, archetypal perspectives, foundations for mythology & psychology, relevant journals, books, videos, etc.)
Teachers' Reference Page for Primary & Secondary School Education

Menu of Common Themes, East & West:

Animal Guides
Animal Deaths in Europe: Of Cows & Madness
Artists & Muses: The Creative Impulse
Creation Myths I
Creation Myths II
Crones & Sages
Dragons & Serpents
Food: Sacrality & Lore
Land: Sacrality & Lore  (mountains, caves, labyrinths, spiral mounds, crop & stone circles, FengShui)
Earth Day & Environmental Issues
Earth Goddesses & Gods
Air: Sacrality & Lore (air, wind, sky, storms, clouds, weather lore)
Air, Wind, and Sky Goddesses & Gods
Fire: Sacrality & Lore (fire, northern lights, green-flashes, Elmo's Fire)
Fire and Solar Goddesses & Gods
Water: Sacrality & Lore  (water, wells, springs, pools, lakes)
Floods & Rainbows: Mythologies & Science
Water & Lunar Goddesses & Gods
Green Men
Nature Spirits of the World
Rituals of Birthing [forthcoming]
Rituals of Death & Dying [forthcoming]
Rituals of Puberty
Rituals of Weather-Working: An experimental, on-going ritual in cyberspace
Sacred Theatre, Dance & Ritual
Star Lore & Astrology
Symbols, Signs, & Runes
Time (Calendars, Clocks, Natural Temporal Cycles, Attitudes toward Time, & Millennium Issues)
Trees & Plant Lore
Tricksters, Clowns, Magicians, Jesters & Fools
Wars, Weapns & Lies: The Dehumanizing Impulse
Weaving Arts & Lore (Cosmic Webs, Spinning, Spindles, Clothing)

Down to Geographical Regions: Africa

Note: My complete Site Map is on the Home Page.
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Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
© 1998-2001 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
Latest Updates:
14 May 2001;
26 May 2001: except for one Maori link dating from 1998 (and noted as such),
all other links are from 26-27 May 2001, unless noted; 28 May 2001.