An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links
to Mythologies, Fairy Tales & Folklore,
Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
Pacifica Graduate Institute

Common Themes, East & West

Earth Goddesses & Gods:


"Birth Worship"
14"x 22" Clay Relief
© by Brad Burkhart, 1997
(Used with the generous permission of the artist)

[From original 1998 page]:  Raumoko: This is the story of the Maori Earth-Goddess, her forced separation from her Sky-mate by her sons (told in graphic, breathtaking prose), and Raumoko, her youngest son, an Earthquake/Volcano-child.  Too young to have participated in severing his mother from his father, this child is furious with his older brothers for committing such a crime.  His relationship with his mother is touchingly portrayed in Hana Weka's re-telling of the story.  So is his rage.
[From original 1998 page]:   First Woman:  This is Hana Weka's Maori story of  Hineahuone, First Woman, made from her mother, Papatuanuku, the Earth.  The story's beginning continues the story of how all but two of Earth's sons separated Earth from her Sky-mate; appalled by the ugliness they had created, they then adorned their mother with great beauty: "She was dressed in a beautiful gown that shimmered green and gold in the sunlight."  Only afterwards do they create First Woman so that Earth's new beauty might be enjoyed, and so that First Woman might give birth to many children to take care of Earth.
[From original 1998 page]:   Hinenuitepo:  This is another in Hana Weka's Maori Earth-Cycle narratives, this one an eerie, sad tale about beautiful Hinenuitepo, a daughter of  First Woman-made-from Earth (see above).  The daughter, who was originally named Dawn Maiden, is greatly loved by her father, the god of forests and birds (he is one of the sons of Earth who forceably separated Earth from Sky).  The father, unable to interest one of his brothers in marrying Dawn Maiden, shapeshifts into a handsome youth.  Dawn Maiden falls in love with him and they marry.  The understated yet powerful story traces the path Dawn Maiden walks to become the Goddess of Death.
Note:  these Maori tales come from a larger collection of 20 sites in the Pakiwaitara: Story Index (see under INDIGENOUS PEOPLES: Maori).  Also see the exquisite tale of "How the Stars Were Made" (under SKY GODDESSES & GODS) for a continuation of Hana Weka's Earth Cycle, this time focusing on the forgotten elder brother who stayed with his Sky father and did not participate with his siblings when they pulled Earth away from her mate.


Goddess from Teotihuacan
Teotihuacan, Mexico State, Mexico
Photo © Edgar Martín del Campo
(See directly below)
This is "The Earth Mother," a very interesting page from Edgar Martín del Campo on Mesoamerican deities.  The page is well illustrated with clickable thumnails (see directly above).

Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant
MythingLinks' Meso-American pages.


Horned God
(Based on the "Sorcerer of the Cave of the Three Brothers")
By Tempest (used with permission)
(Note: a much larger version is on Tempest's site -- also see links below)

This is "His Many Faces," a page from "Lugodoc" in England on the ancient Horned Gods of Europe: the Sorcerer of the Cave of the Three Brothers; Great God Pan; Cernunnos, the Stag Lord; Herne, the Hunter; and Robin Goodfellow.  Links to each of these deities will take you to well written, literate, illustrated essays.  Here's an excerpt from the introduction:
...The Horned God has shown many faces to humans over the millenia of his association with them. Most of his oldest forms are lost forever with the cavemen who worshipped him, but some images remain drawn on caves walls sealed beneath the Earth for longer than recorded history....
This is another, albeit much briefer, introduction to the Horned God with a fine painting of him by Tempest (see above, also below).
This is an interesting little essay on one of Tempest's powerful personal experiences with the Horned God (see above).
Returning again to "Lugodoc" (see above), here's a page giving you access to a virtual "shrine" dedicated to the Horned Gods.  I'm not sure how successful the attempt is but I love the concept.
Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages (e.g., Pan).


Detail from "Gaia"
 © Susan Boulet
(From Goddesses Knowledge Cards, published by Pomegranate)

Gaia: [The URL is too long to fit here, even greatly reduced.]
From the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) comes a page on Gaia (or Gaea) -- brief, but useful and with good hypertext to related deities:
...In the creation story of the ancient Greeks, Chaos preceded all things. Chaos was composed of Void, Mass, and Darkness in confusion. Then Earth, personified as Gaea, came into existence....
 [Also see below under "General & Cross-Cultural."]
This site looks at several lovely ancient coins from the Hellenic world depicting earth-deities, including Pan, Medusa, Pegasus, the Chimera, and various nymphs:
...Also in the religious scheme of classical Greece were deities, demigods, immortal beings and creatures and their "near relations" who represented the "dark side" of Hellenic belief.  Primary among these were the Chthonians - the earth deities. Many Chhonian "creatures" find a place in numismatic mythology....
Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for relevant MythingLinks' pages on Greece.


Odin with his Ravens
[Artist unknown]
This is a fine page on Norse deities by Jodie Forrest.  It begins with the patriarchal, solar-oriented Aesir, but then moves to the more ancient earth-oriented Vanir:
...Freyja and her brother Freyr, who was the god of peace and plenty, were the twin children of the sea-god Njord and his sister Nerthus. They formed part of the tribe of Norse nature and fertility gods called Vanir.  The other, later tribe of Norse deities, were the more warlike and patriarchal Aesir, of whom Odin was the chief....

...Norse and Germanic people believed in women's natural physic abilities, and women Seers were sometimes asked to sit on war councils. Freyja was the patron goddess of the Norse seers called volvas, or seidkonas, who practiced a form of magic called seidr. Seidr means 'spell' or 'enchantment', and also, 'boiling' or 'seething'. It could include sex magic, prophecy, shapeshifting, sendings, curses, fettering opponents, communicating with Elves or the dead, healing, midwifery, vision quests,  giving council, and the use of spirit animals. Freyja had a falcon-skin cape that would let it's wearer travel in the shape of a bird, and she used it as a shaman would to go to the underworld and return with prophecies and with knowledge of individual destinies....

Forrest's essay includes an exploration of Freyja's determination to preserve her autonomy in bestowing sexual favors, her "Dark of the Sun," her magical necklace Brisingamen, and the dwarves who made it.  Here, for example, is an intriguing passage on the dwarves:
...Dwarves are strongly connected to the earth element, and they were seen by the ancient Norse as ugly, brutish, cave dwelling beings, whom the light of the sun would turn to stone. Consumed by the craving for precious objects themselves, they are great craftsmen and metalsmiths. Unable to see the sun, they are driven to work the gold that is sacred to the Sun, and shines as the Sun does....
Finally, Forrest comments that Freyja's magic, or seidr, was learned by none of the Aesir except Odin:
...Seidr, however, was mostly performed by women. Odin was the only god who practiced it, and, again, he learned it from Freyja, acquiring traits that were perhaps originally hers....
Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages.


© By Latvian artist, Roberts Diners (1977 - )
From Kristaps comes a fine page on an ancient Latvian earth-deity, Jumis, a spirit of the fields represented by a twin-ear of grain.  The page includes several handsome "twin-ed" Jumis symbols found in textiles.  Hypertext will take you to links on more earth deities -- all are excellent.  Unfortunately, this site is rigged to prevent cutting and pasting excerpts, so you'll have to take my word that a visit is worthwhile.
This is another page on Latvian deities -- A. Steinbergs' site on general "Earth and Water Deities."  Like Kristaps, he includes symbols for each deity found in textiles.
Note: see the Site Map on my Home Page for other relevant MythingLinks' pages.


Latvian Green Woman
© Larisa Shellar

From The Book of Deities at Spirit-Online come several pages containing 83 alphabetized listings for earth-deities.  Some data is minimal but other entries offer some surprisingly detailed information.  Unfortunately, no hypertext is available for those who wish to explore more deeply.  Still, there's much here that's useful and you can always use search engines or libraries to investigate further.
As far as I can tell, this site is using the exact same data as the above site, only it's all collected together on one very long page, which I personally prefer.
From a British pagan site comes an alphabetical listing of cross-cultural earth-deities.  Data is really minimal but if a name interests you, try doing a web search for further information.
Myths About Earth: [The URL is too long to fit here, even when reduced.]
The University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) offers this illustrated site on multi-cultural deities.  You have a choice of separate pages geared for Beginners, Intermediate, and Advanced (my link is to the "Advanced" section).  Among the cross-cultural deities listed here are: Egyptian: Geb; Aztec: Coatlicue; Greek: Gaea [see above for direct link]; Chinese: Hou Ji; Inca: Pachamama; Maya: Bacabs; Maori: Papa; Norse: Midgard; and Sumerian: Enlil.  There is also a section called Aspects of the Earth with a wide range of cross-cultural deities divided into topics like sky, seasons, storms, sun, moon, auroras, rainbows, and so forth.  What they consider "advanced" is actually fairly basic but it's still an interesting place to browse if you're looking for many cultures in an easily accessible place.
Finally, this is "MAGIC AND HEALING THE EARTH" by Larry Cornett, an appealing, heartening essay about people who work with the earth deities.  It's not for everyone, but for those who resonate with these powerful and sacred energy-waves, it offers a promise of hope.  Here's one example:
...In another ritual, the Consolidated Edison Company of New York's Air Pollution permit renewal applications were taken to a natural power spot for a ritual with a grove of Druids. Spirits that were interested in helping those fighting acid rain then were invoked and invited to use the permits as a vehicle. Those permits throbbed with power when they were sent to the New York Department of Environmental Protection the next day. The State of New York passed some of the strongest acid rain legislation and turned down Con Edison's application to burn high sulfur coal shortly afterwards....
Mything Links' General Reference Pages:
MythingLinks Search Engine
Cross-cultural, Multi-regional, Interdisciplinary Collections
General Reference Page  (online libraries, reference help, literary texts, world languages, word-lover sites, help on writing research papers, copyright information, film plots, themes, and/or films representing various historical periods)
Special Interest Sites for Pacifica Faculty, Students & Colleagues (includes Jung, Campbell, Freud, Eliade, Otto, Hillman, other depth psychologists, mysticism, anthropology, religious studies, archetypal perspectives, foundations for mythology & psychology, relevant journals, books, videos, etc.)
Teachers' Reference Page for Primary & Secondary School Education

Menu of Common Themes, East & West:

Animal Guides
Animal Deaths in Europe: Of Cows & Madness
Artists & Muses: The Creative Impulse
Creation Myths I
Creation Myths II
Crones & Sages
Dragons & Serpents
Food: Sacrality & Lore
Land: Sacrality & Lore  (mountains, caves, labyrinths, spiral mounds, crop & stone circles, FengShui)
Earth Day & Environmental Issues
Earth Goddesses & Gods
Air: Sacrality & Lore (air, wind, sky, storms, clouds, weather lore)
Air, Wind, & Sky Goddesses & Gods
Fire: Sacrality & Lore (fire, northern lights, green-flashes, Elmo's Fire)
Fire & Solar Goddesses & Gods
Water: Sacrality & Lore  (water, wells, springs, pools, lakes)
Floods & Rainbows: Mythologies & Science
Water & Lunar Goddesses & Gods
Green Men
Nature Spirits of the World
Rituals of Birthing [forthcoming]
Rituals of Death & Dying [forthcoming]
Rituals of Puberty
Rituals of Weather-Working: An experimental, on-going ritual in cyberspace
Sacred Theatre, Dance & Ritual
Star Lore & Astrology
Symbols, Signs, & Runes
Time (Calendars, Clocks, Natural Temporal Cycles, Attitudes toward Time, & Millennium Issues)
Trees & Plant Lore
Tricksters, Clowns, Magicians, Jesters & Fools
Wars, Weapns & Lies: The Dehumanizing Impulse
Weaving Arts & Lore (Cosmic Webs, Spinning, Spindles, Clothing)

Down to Geographical Regions: Africa

My complete Site Map will be found on the Home Page.
My e-mail address will also be found near the bottom,
if you have comments or suggestions.

This page created with Netscape Gold
Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
Copyright 1998-2001 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
Unless noted, all rights reserved.
Latest updates:
6 April 2000; 14 May 2001 (checked all links; updated format);
19 May 2001: I began this page in 1998 with 3 links -- these are now identified as such --
all other links, unless noted, date from 19, 25, 26, & 28 May 2001;
25 & 26 May 2001 (redesigned & added more links); 28 May 2001;
5 September 2001 (updated Brad Burkhart's URL + added Pacifica link)

Credits: Horse's Mane background comes from Varian's DreamTiles.