An Annotated & Illustrated Collection of Worldwide Links to Mythologies,
Fairy Tales & Folklore, Sacred Arts & Sacred Traditions
by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.


Hieroglyphs, Papyrus & Texts
[Unless indicated, all annotations are from 1998--
some content may have changed since then]

Archaeologist/Photographer: Mark Lehner
From NOVA's Pyramid site
[Superimposed on a detail of Dr. Timothy Heid's photo of living papyrus]
[15 August 2009: the original link,, is now gone so I am using the Wayback Machine's archival link.]

[Site added 25 January 2003]:  From "Kids Konnect" comes an entry-level site on the famous Rosetta Stone and how it unlocked the mysteries of the language of ancient Egyptian. [Link updated 25 January 2003]
This is A Short Introduction to Hieroglyphs run by Serge Rosmorduc; he looks briefly at history, grammar, signs, drawing, etc.; some portions are still under construction.  If you click on Rosmorduc's name at the top of the page, you'll go to another site with his picture (you'll need to click next to his picture for English if you go this route, unless you read French) -- or see immediately below for a direct English link.... [Link updated 25 January 2003]
Continuing...:  Here, among other things, you'll find computer fonts for hieroglyphs.  In a subsection called "and a few pictures," you'll find 15 good images (click for enlargements).  Under "My favourite servers" you'll find some dead links but also some excellent ones.  Click on his "A server about the Ancient Egyptian language" and you'll find yourself at a Middle Egyptian site -- or see immediately below for a direct link...
Rosmorduc's next site offers good links to texts, etc. from the Middle Kingdom's court language -- as well as a link to a "Forum," also run by Rosmorduc, where interested amateur and professional Egyptologists submit data and/or questions on the intricacies of Egyptian language and culture (at this site he makes it clear that he's interested in solid Egyptology and that he'll reject articles on such issues as aliens or the age of the Sphinx).   The author is both passionate and knowledgeable -- and worth a visit if the Egyptian language intrigues you.
This detailed paper is on "The Pronunciation of Ancient Egyptian" by Kelley L. Ross, Ph.D.  It unravels secrets of vowels where none were ever written and includes some very good history en route. (By the way, if you've ever been tempted  to buy jewelry or book bags with your name inscribed  in ancient hieroglyphs, this paper may not change your mind but at least you'll know better than to believe the hype of the people who sold it to you.) [Link updated 25 January 2003]
This serious, scholarly site is the access-point for joining a discussion list on ancient Egyptian language and texts (the list currently has over 200 members -- amateurs, students, professional Egyptologists).  Both list and website are run by Yale doctoral candidate in Egyptology, Geoffrey Graham. This website includes general information and several  hieroglyphic texts, including the Great Hymn to Aton and texts from the Nefertum Chapel (dating from the time of Seti I) on Ptah-Sokar-Osiris.
[Site added 25 January 2003]:  This is the Egyptologists' Electronic Forum, a "sister" site related to the one directly above, but broadening the scope to all Egyptological issues, not just linguistic ones.
This is Duke University's impressive "Papyrus Archive" of 1,373 papyrus images (representing five languages: Demotic, Coptic, Greek, Latin and Arabic). Under "Read About Papyrus in general," you'll find four excellent papers on the complex history and future of papyrology by Peter van Minnen; this section also provides excellent bibliographies.
Scrolling further on the home page, browse at will, but my own suggestion would be to go to "Selected Topics" and click on "Religious Aspects."  Here you'll find subsections on magical papyri, astrological papyri, and liturgical papyri; you'll also find papyri with fragments of New Testament texts as well as the Koran (under "Early Christianity" is a fine paper, "Dating New Testament Manuscripts" by Peter van Minnen).  I should mention that there is very little "art" in this site's papyri (and what there is seems clumsy); the illustrated fragments of papyri are mostly of text, but this in itself has its own power. [Link updated 25 January 2003]
[Annotation updated 25 January 2003 since site has moved from Brown University & the papyrus photo is now much smaller than it was in 1998]:   This is Dr. Timothy W. Seid's "Papyrus Page" for Earlham School of Religion -- it opens with his stunning color photograph of real papyrus (I've used only a tiny fraction of it in my opening collage), beautifully capturing the delicacy and exquisite greens of this plant.  Following this is Pliny's long description of the process of turning papyrus into paper; further data from Adolf  Deissmann's classic 1908 work adds to the usefulness of this information.
Excellent related links to more Seid pages take you to such areas as New Testament text criticism, data on making parchment, and an overview and index.
[Site added 25 January 2003]:  This is the Papyrology Home Page from John D. Muccigrosso, assistant professor of classics at Drew University.  It is a treasure trove of links to papyrus archives and much more.  Plan to spend a long time here.
[15 August 2009: the original link,, is now gone so I am using the Wayback Machine's archival link.]
This is Sir E.A. Wallis Budge's translation of The Egyptian Book of the Dead from the "Papyrus of Ani."  Click on the Table of Contents for a listing of separate translated portions as well as for access to the entire book in a plain text file.  Although there is much of interest here, be aware that Budge's translation is dated.

The site offers some good links (some of which are already on my own website); one link, under "The Egyptian Book of the Dead," will take you to a new Studio 31 translation -- I haven't seen the work, but it looks interesting (Note: go to the end of this promotional site and click on the "here" of "further information" -- then scroll down to a mostly white band of choices and click on "Next": this will give you an interactive site connected to this book; frankly, I could make no sense of it, but those who are more computer literate than I might enjoy it.)

(from here you can get to the opening AFRICA page)
AlexandriaAmarnaArt & Artifacts/Daily Life in Ancient Egypt/Egypt: General Information, Travel, Etc./
Egypt: through the Eyes of Photographers & ArtistsHieroglyphs, Papyrus & TextsLinks to the Links/
Men of Ancient EgyptMultiple Category SitesMythologyOther Archaeological SitesPyramids/
Religious Beliefs&PracticesWomen of Ancient EgyptThe Sahara


If you have comments or suggestions,
my email address will be found near the bottom of my home page.

Please note that I cannot help with homework questions -- you will find useful links with tips for doing your own web searches on my Search Engine page.  You will also find excellent resources on my General Reference page.  Good luck with your projects!

This page created with Netscape Gold 3.01
Technical assistance: William Weeks
Text and Design:
Copyright 1998 by Kathleen Jenks, Ph.D.
All rights reserved

Updates since 11/13/98:
1 February 1999 (except for Tim Seid's site, as noted above, all other links on this page are still fine);
25 January 2003: redesigned, un-Webcom-d, did links-check, & added new ones.
15 August 2009: updated broken links; the link to online free weekly lessons from several young
Belgian Egyptologists now goes to a medical page, so I deleted the annotation.
6 January 2011: finally removed "sponsored ad," which actually expired last summer;
book's author never got back to me when I asked if he wanted another year.